Items 5 – 11 Validación de la escala breve para diagnosticar estrés post-traumático (SPRINT- E) en una muestra de personas afectadas por el terremoto y. puede desarrollar dificutades continuas conocidas como trastorno de tensión postraumático (TTPT). El evento de estrés o traumático envuelve una situación. TRASTORNO DE ESTRÉS POSTRAUMÁTICO, ANSIEDAD Y DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES Y ADULTOS EXPUESTOS AL CONFLICTO ARMADO EN.

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On February 27, F there was an earthquake and a tsunami m Chile that has caused a great impact on the mental health of the population of this country, specifically in the increase of cases of posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD. Finally, some reflections about new factor structure discovered in this analysis, which is consistent with the meaning of items and with theoretical models such as covert stimuli. It also reflects on the usefulness of a brief scale, proven valid and very good psychometric plstraumatico in a Spanish-speaking population prone to natural disasters such as Chilean F, Japan March 11, or Spain May 11, Posttraumatic stress disorder; exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; screening edtres earthquake; tsunami.

On Saturday February 27th F at Its epicenter was located After the shake, a major tsunami devastated several cities and towns of at least kilometers at central coast, such as Constitucion or Talcahuano Riquelme, a.

This earthquake was one of the largest and intense in the history of the planet, being one of the six most powerful movements recorded since around the world USGS, The victims were people and there are 56 persons still missing Ministerio del Interior-Gobierno de Chile, a, b.

Trastorno por estrés postraumático – Síntomas y tratamiento

Based on information giving before, we can say that an earthquake and tsunami like the F are events that cause a very high impact on people, regardless their ethnicity or social income. It is clear, for instance, the need for valid diagnostic tools and effective methods to quantify these effects, especially with the most important disorder after a disaster: Specifically the PTSD is defined by the DSM IV as a kind of anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms following exposure either directly or indirectly hear stories, see pictures or movies to an extremely stressful and traumatic events in this case, the F The person responds with fear, helplessness or intense horror.

The traumatic event is re-experienced through rumination, uncontrollable and distressing memories or dreams, accompanied by images, thoughts or perceptions.

This produces an intense psychological distress associated with continual avoidance of the experienced, dullness reluctantlybehavioral activation and physiological responses. These responses appear especially when the person is exposed to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.

Some of the symptoms of a PTSD are related to difficulties to falling or staying asleep, to focus attention, irritability, angry outbursts, hypervigilance and postarumatico startle response. Note that these symptoms do not always occur immediately after a disaster.

Some people affected by Postrumatico improve their health with time, while others may maintain the disorder for 4 years or more Goenjian et al. Davidson and colleagues Davidson et al. For each item, people have to give two types of responses regarding frequency and intensity of these symptoms in postraimatico 5 option Likert scales.

In order to give a solution to this problem, there are screening scales that have less items and with direct method of answer. That is the case of the “Short Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview” SPRINTE an instrument with 12 items, which measures the 3 groups of DSM-IV symptoms items 1 to 4reactions related to PTSD 5 to 11, depression, healthy behavior, stress tolerance, performance in their daily work and social functioningthe perception that each person has on needed help and suicidal intention item This postraumayico item is not included in the score but was included as a precaution: Respect of the measuring scale, each SPRINTE item is evaluated as experienced by the person during the last month, through a Likert scale from 0 none to 4 very much points.

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It is considered that a symptom is intense if this has a score of 3 or 4 Norris et al. However, never before the validity of this scale in any of its forms has been tested in a Latin American sample, in Spanish language version, nor in people who experienced an plstraumatico and a tsunami. These three features constitute the main relevance of this work.

The sample included people, all adults of both sexes from eight different populations that lived through the F Posrtaumatico is because the interest was to choose groups of people belonging to three cities affected by the F, although in different degrees.

In addition, samples of teachers, attorneys and university students represent the general population and CESFAM staff represents a vulnerable group Figueroa, Marin et al.

Items 5 and 7 assess other important reactions related to PTSD, such as depression and healthy behavior. Items 6, 9 and 10 refer to the functional impairment of the person, resulting in questions about stress tolerance, performance in their daily work and social functioning, respectively. Items 8 and 11 assess that each person has on need help Norris et al.

Respect of the measuring scale, each item of SPRINT-E is evaluated using postarumatico Likert scale from 0 none to 4 very much points, with the exception of item 12 intention suicide which is dichotomous 0 is “no” and 1 is “yes” poztraumatico for this postraumatic, item 12 was removed to the analysis. As mentioned before, the authors use it only as a criterion of gravity for the estre Norris et al. It was used an adaptation of the DTS validated for Spanish population which has good reliability index Cronbach’s Alpha over.

For this test, a value above. To assess construct validity, we performed an exploratory factor analysis EFA by the method of ungeneralized least squares extraction, varimax rotation and free numbers of factors.

The EFA was performed among randomly selected participants from the original sample. The model has a good fit and it is relevant to perform the analysis if psotraumatico following tests show values within the limits: A model has an appropriate adjustment if the following indicators have values within the limits: Furthermore, when analyzing the values of this test if any item is deleted, the Cronbach Alpha decreases.

T. Estrés Postraumático – Libros gratis online

To analyze the construct validity of the instrument was performed the exploratory factor analysis EFA. The first step was to analyze the relevance of the factor solution and if there is a structure of relations among the items suitable for extracting factors. The factor structure of the founded solution was analyzed. In this regard, we obtained a solution of 2 factors that postraujatico For this reason, an EFA was performed with a single factor solution.

This solution explained In consequence, the evidence indicates that there are two possible models: Rotated factor matrix to identify which items should load on which factors was analyze, to elucidate in part this dilemma.

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Performing a reading of items, it is possible to group them at the same form that EFA do it: This is consistent theoretically because is similar with the organization given by the authors of the scale Norris et at. Given the above results, we conducted a CFA to specify the adjustment of Model 2 two factors and compare the fit with Model 1 single factor. In both cases, maximum likelihood estimation method was used. Standardized version of CFA for a single factor model Model 1. Standardized version of CFA for a two etres model Model 2.

It has a very good index of internal consistency, high concurrent validity high correlations esrres the ;ostraumatico used as a criterionand it has a factor structure that matches with the previous theory. It is also postraumatick brief and rapid scale that has fewer items than other scales such as the DTS. This new model is consistent with the definition given by the authors Norris et al. Thus, the first 4 estrres are related with the PTSD esttes numbness, irritability and intrusive memorieswhile items 5 to 11 are related with responses or reactions linked to this disorder discourage, difficulty in family and social relationships, substance abuse, difficulty solving problems and worry.


From this perspective, PTSD is explained by covert estrds symptoms that cause mal-adaptive responses reactions. This increases its relevance as a diagnostic tool and complementary to the therapy of PTSD which, as in the case of systematic desensitization should be based on cognitive-behavioral model to be effective Figueroa et al.

A limitation of the results just presented might be the use of maximum likelihood as a method of extraction. Therefore, it is best to perform the analysis with another method, such as unweighted least square Brown, Complementary to presented results, we performed the analysis of model 2 by the latter method. The procedure gives results that confirm the good fit of model: RMR close to 0 0. Finally, the fact that the SPRINT-E has been validated for the first time in a different cultural context and after an earthquake and tsunami, is very important to implement improvements in diagnostic procedures of PTSD.

Spanish version of the SPRINT-E will allow to mental health teams of the Spanish-speaking regions to have a useful and brief tool poztraumatico mitigate the effects of traumatic events. For example, the SPRINT-E benefits directly estrres people that living in the American Pacific coast from California to Chile, susceptible postraumahico to suffer these catastrophic events, as was demonstrated after the earthquake and tsunami of Japan on March 11, The last catastrophic event not only affected the Japanese population, but also in countries such as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and specially Chile, that suffered the effects of a massive tsunami again after just 13 months USGS, In the Chilean case, the SPRINT-E might help to generate preventive and promotions actions for people’s health, especially in coast cities, considering that the effects of a major catastrophe such as Edtres last even more than two years before occurred.

Considering the situation after the earthquake of Lorca-Murcia May 11, or others that might eventually happen in other Spanish-speaking places, can be used this scale for diagnoses and preventive purposes. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, Long-term follow-up of psychological distress following earthquake experiences among working Italian males: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 4, The covert conditioning handbook. The Chinese version of the Davidson Trauma Scale: A practice test for validation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 55, Assessment of a new self-rating scale for posttraumatic stress disorder.

Psychological Medicine, 27, Psychological support for disaster victims: Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions after earthquake and political violence.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

American Journal of Psychiatry,Prentice Hall International Inc. Summary of Results Censo Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, The relevance and prevalence of post-traumatic stress after an earthquake: A commentary and elaboration on Barrett Personality and Individual Differences, posrraumatico, Extracted January 25, from: Ministerio del Interior-Gobierno de Chile a.

Extracted July 14, from: Ministerio del Interior-Gobierno de Chile b.

There is a place for approximate fit in structural equation modeling.