The electromeric effect is the movement of electrons from one atom to another as a reagent attacks a π bond. +E effect: In the positive electromeric effect the pi electrons of the multiple bond are transferred to that atom to which the attacking reagent is bonded. -E effect. This lesson will discuss inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects with examples. We will also discuss some of the factors affecting electron.

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Fission of a covalent bond.

Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques

If a covalent bonds breaks in such a way that each atom takes away one electron of the shared pair, it is called homolytic or symmetrical fission. Homolytic fission is usually indicated by a fish arrow which denotes a one electron displacement.

The neutral chemical species which elevtromeric an odd or unpaired electron and which are produced by homolytic fission of covalent bonds are called free radicals.

Homolytic fission usually occurs in non-polar bonds and is favoured by high temperatureultraviolet radiations and by the presence of radical indicators such as peroxides. When a covalent bond joining two atoms A and B breaks in such a way that both the electrons of the covalent bond are taken away by one of the bonded atoms, the mode of bond cleavage is called heterolytic fission.


Inductive And Electromeric Effects

Heterolytic fission is usually indicated by a curved arrow which denotes a two electron displacement. Heterolytic fission results in the formation of charged species i.

It usually occurs in polar covalent bond and is favoured by polar solvents. As a result ,the atom X acquires a small negative charge and C 1 acquires a small positive effeect. This effect weakens steadily with increasing distance from the substituent and actually becomes negligible after 3 carbon atoms. There are two types of inductive effect: The -I effect of some of the atoms and groups in the decreasing order w.

Chemistry | Organic Chemistry | – what is electromeric eff-askIITians

Inductive effect is a elfctromeric effect operating in the ground state of the organic molecules and health is responsible for high melting point white and dipole moment of Polar compounds. It involves the complete transfer of electrons of a multiple bond to one of the bonded atom in presence of an electron attacking reagent.


It is called the E effect. This effect is temporary and takes place only in the presence of a reagent. As soon as effecf reagent is removed, the molecule reverts back to its original position.

Electromeric effect is of two types: Addition of acids to alkenes. If the electrons of the double bond are transferred to an atom of the double bonds other than the one to which the reagent gets finally attached the effect is called -E Effect.

Addition of Cyanide ion to the carbonyl group. Your email address will not be published. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.