i Inc.: Salama Llahi cala masayihi l-cilmi wa-l-hikmati bi-Madinati l- Salami madda Ibn Sina: Baqc? al-nafs al-natiqa [al-6umal min al-adilla al-muhaqqaqa . strictly speaking, the interior statement (qawlu n-nafs) and is necessarily fi ad-darz2riyydti tariqun ild l-cilmi bihN) he means that knowledge of them is. Ibn cArabï, Muhyi al-din, Risdlat ruh al-quds fl muhasabat al-nafs: Damascus, 2 vols., ed. by Mustafa Jawad, Baghdad, al-Majmac al-cIlmi al-cIraqi,

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Yet the bases of the exegetical method that Mawlana Rumi propounded still remain unclear. In what follows, we rely mainly on two great works of mystical exe- gesis.

Quoting certain statements by Aflaki in this regard,4 Zarrinkub underlines that Mawlana al-caz. Fons Vitaewith minor modifications. Wherever possible, we will be making use of the partial translation of this text by Farhana Mayer: Dunya-yi Kitab A.

Intisharat-i cIlmi A. Intisharat-i Danishgah-i Tehran A.

Sufi psychology

Majmu ca-yi mava ciz. Husayn-i Khatibi-yi Balkhi, ed. Badic al-Zaman Furuzanfar Tehran: The only way one can discover the sources of his adaptations from such texts is by immersing and familiarizing oneself in the study of these commentaries through con- tinuous reading of them over the course of years of study.

Another obstacle to this type of research is that most of these mystical com- mentaries lack good critical editions, which makes them even more difficult to use. In this respect, the efforts of a number of Western scholars to edit these foundational commentaries should be high- lighted here.

Nashr-i Qatra A. Amir Kabir A. These books have generally tried to classify and reinterpret earlier interpretations of the same theme, republishing these in a new, updated format. Tustari, who flourished four centuries before Rumi, influenced the author of the Mathnawi through the medium of a number of important thinkers.

First and foremost of these was of course Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali d. Amongst the early Sufi authors of such commentaries the name of Sahl Tustari stands out as a sober mystic who focused on training his disciples in the morals and manners of the Sufi Path, avoiding scandal, controversy, and sensationalism.

Since this motif is the central subject of all religious ethics in Islam in general and Sufi moral teach- ings in particular, it is appropriate if we begin our discussions here.

The following two examples may serve to exemplify his approach: And if two parties of believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them. And if one party of them does wrong to the other, fight that which does wrong till it return unto the ordinance of God; then, if it return, make peace between them justly, and act equitably. The Glorious Koran London: The outward meaning of the verse is as those specialised in exe- gesis have explained.

If natural instinct, desire and lust take up arms against the heart, intellect and spirit, the servant must fight them with the swords of vigilance muraqabathe arrows of inspection mutala ca and the lights of conformity muwafaqaso that the spirit and the intellect gain the upper hand, and desire and lust are vanquished.

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Elsewhere in his commentary he contrasts spiritual and sensual pleasures using his own distinctive terminology, declaring that: Tustari does not concentrate on the exoteric sense of the verse, which concerns the ill-fated Balcam, son of Boer, a Canaanite descended from Lot who opposed Moses and his people,14 but focuses on the inner meaning of self-abasement before God: Keeler and Keeler Louisville, KY: Fons Vitaep.

It is reported that the Prophet was riding on a donkey and as it passed by Ibn Ubayy it urinated.

Ibn Ubayy held his nose, whereupon Ibn Rawaca remarked: All quotations from Tustari cited in this article are from the excellent annotated translation of Tafsir al-Tustari by Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler cited in note 1 above. This quotation can be found on p. Keeler and Keeler, p. The more the servant buries his [lower] self in the earth the higher will his heart soar heavenwards. Furthermore, if he [com- pletely] buries his lower self beneath the earth his heart will reach the Throne.

The sensuous eye is the horse, and the Light of God is the rider: Therefore, train the horse so as to cure it of bad habits; else the horse will be rejected before the king. The Light of God mounts as a rider on the sensuous eye, and then the soul yearns after God. Go towards a sense on which the Light is riding: The Light of God is an ornament to the light of sense: The light of sense draws a man towards earth; the Light of God bears him aloft, Because sensible things are a lower nafss Luzac —Book II: All translations from the Mathnawi in this article are by Reynold.

Nxfs example, in Book III, he states: Kill your fleshly soul and make the world spiritually alive; it your fleshly soul has killed its master: Like the people of Moses in the heat of Desert, thou hast remained forty years in the same place, O foolish man.

Shaykh Ahmad Farid al- Mazidi, 3 vols. Thou wilt never traverse this three hundred years distance so long as thou hast love for the calf.

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Until the fancy illusion of the calf went out of their hearts, the Desert was to them like a blazing pool. It is for this reason that the traditional Sufi adage: Inasmuch as he did not give due punishment to this idol of self, from the idol of his self the other idol was born. The idol of your self is the mother of all idols, because that material idol is only a snake, while this spiritual idol is a dragon. Tustari cilmu this verse to mean: Munificence is the abandonment of lusts and pleasures; no one who is sunken in lust rises up again.

This munificence is a branch of cypress of Paradise: In several passages he also cilmk the importance of consumption of proper halal food, that is, food obtained in accordance with Islamic dietary laws. Hunger, on the other hand, he opines, is the sultan of all medicinal remedies, a remedy best suited to advanced spiritual adepts: Indeed hunger is the king of medicines: See also Sulami, Tafsir al-Sulami, ed. Intisharat-i Danishgahi —vol. In the quaternion of remedies for diseases of the soul, hunger features chief, according to both Tustari and Abu Hamid al- Ghazali.


In his Treatise on the Diseases of the Soul Sulami wrote: Hunger, however, weakens the lower soul, dissuades it from the pursuit of pleasures and self-indulgence, so the heart can dominate and subjugate it. In the following verses, Rumi describes food sourced by proper halal means as the source of interior illumination and wisdom: The mouthful that gave increase of light and perfection is obtained from lawful earnings. Cil,i the lawful morsel are born knowledge and wisdom, from the lawful morsel come out love and tenderness.

The morsel is seed, and thoughts are its fruit; the morsel is the sea, and thoughts are its pearls. From the lawful morsel in the mouth is born the inclination to serve God and the resolve to go to yonder world.

Markaz-i Nashr-i Danishgahi — A. Abu cAli Hasan ibn Ahmad al-cUthmani, ed.

Badi c al-Zaman Furuzanfar Tehran: God, Exalted is He, created the world and placed knowledge and wisdom within hunger ju cand placed ignorance and transgres- sion within satiety shab c. So, when you are colmi ask for satiety from the One who has afflicted you with hunger, and if you are satiated, ask for hunger from the One who has afflicted you with satiety, otherwise you will commit excesses and transgress.

You are not one of the honoured favourites of God that you should be kept without walnuts and raisins. In his interpretation of the verse: A similar statement known to Rumi was: Tehran University Press A. Tustari interpreted this verse to mean: Know that the servant does not attain true faith haqiqat al-iman until he becomes as the earth for the servants of God — it endures the suffering that they impose upon it, and they derive benefits from it.

The chosen servants of God are merciful and long-suffering: They are kind and bribeless ones, helpers in the hard plight and the heavy, grievous day. Sufi Sources of Hafiz. Taurispp. Kohlberg, paragraphp. Apropos of the following verse: They avoid causing harm, offence or distress to others, and exhibit patience in face of affliction and tribulation. The valiant holy men are a help in the world when the wail of the oppressed culmi them.

Avicenna’s Metaphysics in Context | Robert Wisnovsky –

From every quarter they hear the cry of the oppressed and run in that direction, like the mercy of God. Shun much suspicion; for lo! And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother?

Ye abhor that so abhor the other! And keep your duty to God. God is Relenting, Merciful.